Sexually transmitted disease (sexually transmitted disease) or STD is the disease that can be transmitted through sexual contact. It is caused by a microorganism, and can be its etiological agent: virus, bacterium, mycobacteria, protozoa, parasite, fungus and possibly mixed agents.
Infections can cause lesions on the mucosa and skin of the male and female genitalia. Infections can invade the tissues and spread systemically or may injure by upward contamination to other genital organs, both in men and women. They can cause chronic infection in the prostate, epididymides, uterus, fallopian tubes. Therefore, they can culminate in irreparable damage, such as male and female sterility. Sexually transmitted disease may be implicated in the genesis of cancer, such as HPV in the etiopathogenesis of cancer of the penis and cervix. Hepatitis can be transmitted through sexual contact, and these viruses are also related to liver cancer.
There are cases where the disease is transmitted without the carrier manifesting any symptoms. There may be chlamydia, with no symptoms in 50% of men and 75% of women. Other times, these patients may present symptoms months and even years after their contamination in the genitals or distant from the initial infection site.
Young adults with testicular pain should be regarded as having chronic infection in the epididymides caused by chlamydia or mycoplasma until proven otherwise.
There may be cases without urethral or vaginal secretion significant. All urethral secretions, vaginal, ulcerated lesions on the genitalia should be regarded as sexually transmitted disease. An increase in inguinal ganglia may occur, which may also ulcerate or course with skin fistula. Some of these diseases are febrile and can be debilitating and cachexia (progressive weight loss).
It depends on the affected organ. However, in some cases the initial lesion may not manifest itself, and in this way, diagnosis of difficult disease. Lues may occur (syphilis), without the patient having the initial ulcerated lesion. However, it can be diagnosed by secondary injury that reaches the skin and mucosa. In addition, the diagnosis can be suspected in distant organs of the genitalia as in the eyes and throat.
Identification of the agent is critical to the treatment. The investigation of the etiological agent both local and in serological tests may reveal the diagnosis. Sometimes nonspecific blood tests may give clues that something is wrong in the body.
Patients with secretion from the fistula in the scrotum should be investigated as genital tuberculosis until proven otherwise. Generally, these patients present evening fever. Tuberculosis is transmitted by cough droplets, cutaneous-mucosal contact, transplacental. In addition, it can occur through urination and sexual contact. It can cause infertility.
Treatment should be indicated according to the etiological agent. The schedule and time of treatment depend on the time of installation of the disease and the affected organ. However, when extensive lesions occur, it may not restore organ function to treatment. Therefore, it may require surgical removal or restorative surgery. The treatment can cause damage to other organs that are not affected by the disease but are damaged by the treatment. In this way, deafness can be developed by the use of certain antibiotics.
The prevention is carried out by the safe sex, using the condom. However, even so, contamination and STD development may occur. It is common HPV in patients who used condoms and appear with verrucous lesions in the pubis region.
Viruses are much smaller microorganisms than bacteria and fungi. Therefore, they can overcome the latex pores of the condom. Its use greatly diminishes the infecting population, being able to improve the effectiveness of the immune defenses of our organism. Viruses need host cell organelles to multiply.
Currently available HPV vaccine quadrivalent. It should be applied from 9 to 26 years, but the ideal is to be administered before sexual activity begins. know more about prevention of HPV.
You can indicate postectomy to patients at risk for sexually transmitted diseases, as occurs with homosexuals. In Africa, surgery caused a decrease in the incidence of HIV. Epithelialization of the mucosa of the foreskin and glans makes the skin more resistant to the passage of microorganisms that cause STD.
Anal sex causes urethritis by intestinal bacteria, therefore, gram negative. Prophylactic treatments should be performed in patients who have been raped and drugs have been instituted to protect them from multiple agents. Therefore, treatment with antiretroviral drugs should be human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
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