Glossary

Glossary

Radio Frequency Ablation

A medical procedure, which uses heat generated from high-frequency currents for the treatment of renal tumors.

Uric acid

Uric acid is created by the breakdown of purines, a product of degradation of nucleic acids (DNA). It can cause its deposition in the joints, causing gouty arthritis (very painful inflammation in the joints, podagra) or by its excretion accentuated by the kidneys, the calculation of uric acid. Learn more about Kidney stones of uric acid, how to prevent the calculation of uric acid and his diagnosis and treatment.

Adenoma

Adenoma is benign tumor of the prostate, known as HPB, in benign prostatic hyperplasia, which grows around the prostatic urethra, in the transitional zone. This is one of the three zones defined initially by the transrectal ultrasound of the prostate, which involves the prostatic urethra. Learn more about benign prostatic hyperplasia. In the anterior area of ​​the prostate there are no glands, only fibromuscular prostate support.

O HPB causes the symptoms of LUTS (lower urinary tract symptoms). Learn about the classification of LUTS em How am I urinating?.

By the classification of LUTS patients are divided into patients with symptoms: mild, moderate and severe.

  • Patients in the first group should not be treated, only followed by the urologist. Consultations can be annual and patients are reviewed if worsening of symptoms occurs in this period.
  • Those of the second can be treated with medicines that relax the prostate or decrease its volume. It is still possible in cases with larger prostates that 50-60 grams use the two medications for relief of symptoms more effectively.
  • Those of the third group are more frequently treated by surgical clearance of the transitional zone.

Also, know about surgeries for HPB

Several surgeries can be used and some are still evolving, both by their energy sources and clinically tested. All are compared with Prostate RTU or open surgery (transvesical prostatectomy). Minimally invasive surgeries such as open surgery are used. In minimally invasive procedures the urethra is used to pass the devices to perform the surgery. Endoscopic urethral surgery, endoscopic resection of the prostate (Prostate RTU) and open. The latter is indicated for prostates greater than 80 grams, open prostatectomy. Understand the preoperative and postoperative care of the prostate TURP.

Currently, the surgery with the best results is the endoscopic enucleation of the prostate with holmium laser, or Holep. This surgery can be used to treat even smaller prostates and is the first choice in urology services where doctors have already gained proficiency with the method. It produces the best immediate results as long term, with tracking in some services for more than 10 years.

Recurrence, return of prostatic obstruction, after Holep is estimated to be less than 1%. At Prostate RTU occurs at 10-15% at 10-15 years after surgery. When this occurs is due to the completion of technically incomplete surgery (some transitional zone of the prostate has been left to grow).

know more about Holep e Who are the candidates for the Holep.

LHRH agonists

The drugs used in the treatment of prostate cancer to stop the production of testosterone in the testicles, blocking luteinizing hormone (LH) in the pituitary gland. The testicles produce testosterone in a circadian fashion and its production is higher at night until the early hours of the morning.

Histopathological analysis

Examination of the tissue under an optical microscope to study the presence and characteristics of diseases such as cancer or other inflammatory, benign, and other diseases.

Androgens

Male sex hormones that control and deliver male characteristics, such as facial hair and voice tone. The most important male hormone is Testosterone. Its deficiency has serious consequences for human health. Learn more about drop in testosterone in the blood.

Anemia

A reduced level of red blood cells, red blood cells. It is the most common blood disorder. It causes fatigue, weakness and lack of concentration, among other symptoms.

Anesthesia (general, spinal or local)

Before a procedure you will receive anesthetics to not feel pain. Under general anesthesia you become unconscious. Under spinal or local anesthesia you will not feel pain in the part of the body where the procedure is done. Anesthesia disappears gradually after the procedure.

Antagonists of LHRH

The drugs used in the treatment of prostate cancer that for the production of Testosterone, by inhibiting the production of androgens /

PSA - Specific prostate antigen

It is a protein produced by the prostate. It may increase in men with a benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), prostatic inflammation (prostatitis) or prostate cancer. Its function is the liquefaction of semen after ejaculation. It is usually dosed in the blood to help define the cause of prostate disease, such as:

Apoptosis

Natural or induced death by the treatments of the cells that constitute a normal tissue or with cancer. Usually they are in constant renewal, mainly in the epithelia in the organism.

Asymptomatic

Any condition that causes no symptoms and is discovered by chance

Metabolic evaluation for renal calculi

Blood and urine tests in patients who have a high risk of stone formation. By studying several molecules it is possible to determine the cause of the origin of the kidney stone. Learn about major types of kidney stones.

Patients with relapsed renal colic should perform it, as it is possible in some cases to guide diet and medications to decrease their relapse.

Bladder

An organ that receives urine through the ureters produced in the kidneys. It distends itself with the arrival of urine and is emptied when it is full, under our command.

Biopsy

A medical procedure in which a small piece of tissue is removed from the body to be examined under a microscope, usually removed by a special needle. This is done to get information for diagnosis, follow-up and treatment. Understand when prostate biopsy is indicated and its importance in active surveillance in prostate cancer.

Brachytherapy

Sometimes called a seed implant. Radioactive "seeds" are carefully placed inside the cancerous tissue and positioned to destroy the cancer.

Asymptomatic renal stones (stones)

Kidney stones that do not cause any symptoms. They are usually found during imaging tests such as ultrasound and computed tomography done by any other medical condition.

Localized kidney cancer

Um kidney cancer, where the tumor is limited in the kidney and has not spread to the ganglia or other organs. Learn About Surgery kidney cancer.

Localized prostate cancer

Um prostate cancer, where the tumor is limited to the prostate and has not spread out of the prostate capsule or distant organs. It is restricted to the prostate capsule and therefore can be cured by radical prostatectomy. know more about high risk prostate cancer, open radical prostatectomy, robotic prostate surgery e care in the pre- and postoperative period of radical prostatectomy.

Castration-resistant prostate cancer

A type of prostate cancer that needs lower levels of androgens to continue to grow.

Locally advanced prostate cancer

Um prostate cancer in which adenocarcinoma has spread out of the prostate and surrounding tissue.

Locally advanced kidney cancer

A cancer where the tumor grew out of the kidneys, in perirenal tissue and invaded veins, the adrenal gland or surrounding lymph nodes.

Castration

A chemical or surgical treatment, in which the production of androgens is blocked, or the effect of the hormones is blocked on the target cells of the periphery.

Open surgery

A surgical procedure in which the surgeon cuts the skin and tissues to have direct access to the structures or organs.

Laparoscopic surgery or minimally invasive surgery

A minimally invasive surgical procedure, in which the surgeon does not need to cut through the skin and tissue. Instead, the surgeon inserts surgical instruments through small incisions in the abdomen or chest.

Clear Cell Renal Carcinoma

A type of kidney tumor with a high fat content.

Chemical castration

A type of treatment in which drugs are used to stop the production of androgens, or block their effects.

Catheter

A hollow flexible tube to insert or drain fluids from the body. In urology, catheters are generally used to drain the urine from the bladder or kidneys.

Intermittent catheter or bladder catheter

A tube placed in the urethra and bladder to empty urine from the bladder. It is placed manually and removed several times a day.

Double jack catheter

A tube that is temporarily placed in the ureter to drain the urine from the kidney to the bladder.

Cystoscope

A type of endoscope, which is used in the urethra to view the urethra, prostatic urethra, and bladder.

Bone scintigraphy

An examination that uses an intravenous substance to detect bone metastases in every body skeleton

Kidney cyst, what is it?

Bags full of fluid located in the kidney. Cysts can be malignant

Renal colic

Severe pain in the lumbar region, flank or groin caused by a stone that blocks the normal flow of urine. It usually occurs by eliminating kidney stone.

Bladder collar

Muscles that connect from the bladder to the urethra. These muscles contract to hold the urine in the bladder and relax to let the urine pass into the urethra.

Classification of tumors: the classification TNM

The classification TNM is the international classification prepared by the International Society of Pathology. It is used to classify tumors according to size T), if the lymph nodes are affected (factor N) and if the cancer has spread to other parts of your body, called metastasis M). Benign tumors grow locally, while malignant ones cause invasion of local structures, local or distant metastases.

Compression of the spinal cord

An emergency condition where a fragment of tumor or bone puts pressure on the nerves in the spinal cord

Cryptorchidism

Impacable testis, located in the retroperitoneum (behind the abdomen). This location condition should be treated quickly and the best results occur when the surgery is performed in the sixth month of life. Learn more about what it is cryptorchidism.

Cryotherapy

It is the use of low temperatures in medical therapy to treat malignant or benign cell growth.

Palliative care

A concept of care with the goal of optimizing your quality of life if you can not recover from your illness. It deals with physical, psychological, social and spiritual problems.

DAEM

DAEM is the androgenic decline of male aging, is called male hypogonadism. The drop in testosterone in man occurs after 40 years of age. Its replacement improves physical and mental well-being. know more about male hypogonadism, associated diseases is about its importance in erectile dysfunctionl.

Detrusor

Smooth muscle found on the wall of the bladder. The detrusor muscle remains relaxed to allow the bladder to store urine and contract during urination to release the urine through the urethra.

Diagnosis

The doctor does a series of tests to understand which disease produces the signs and symptoms

Erectile dysfunction

The inability to obtain or maintain an erection during intercourse. There are many causes that cause erectile dysfunction. Understand more about erectile dysfunction.

Neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction

A complication in the lower urinary tract caused by problems in the nervous system that influences its activity

Metastatic disease

When a tumor has spread to other organs or lymph nodes

Anti-androgen drugs

Any drug that blocks the action of androgens

Retrograde ejaculation

The condition when the semen can not be eliminated by the urethra during orgasm and instead goes to the bladder. Semen leaves the bladder when the person urinates. know more about retrograde ejaculation.

Embolization

A non-surgical, minimally invasive procedure in which a blood vessel is blocked to prevent blood flow from reaching a tumor

Endoscope

A tube instrument to examine the inside of the body. Can be flexible or rigid

Enzyme

The large biological molecules that are responsible for metabolic processes are usually transformed by enzymes.

Gleason score

Gleason's classification determines the aggressiveness of a tumor in the prostate gland. It is based on the pattern of the cancerous glands. Each pattern gets a value between 1 and 5. The pathologist adds the scores of the two patterns that appear on most tissue samples. Tumors with a higher score are more aggressive and harder to heal. Understand more about prostate cancer, when to indicate prostate biopsy e how to treat high risk patient.

Urinary Sphincter

The muscles used to control the output of urine into the bladder, through the urethra. When its contraction occurs, the urethra is sealed. There are two types of sphincters, the volunteer consisting of striated muscle, and the involuntary, by smooth muscle. The latter can not be commanded by our will, keeping contracted and retaining the urine. The volunteer acts on our command, opening the prostatic urethra so that the urine leaves under our command.

There is a way to urinary incontinence, placing a artificial sphincter to solve the problem. This surgery is indicated for patients with significant loss of urine, even at slight exertion. Several diseases may cause the problem, but it is more seen in patients who have undergone radical prostatectomy, due to damage to the external sphincter. Learn more about how the urinary incontinence, regarding the post-prostatectomy urinary incontinence and treatment with urinary sphincter.

Axial skeleton

Bones of the basin, proximal third of the femur, spine and costal arches

Stage of the tumor

It refers to the extent of cancer in the body. It is based on the size of the tumor and whether the tumor has spread to lymph nodes or other organs

Steroid

A drug that tries to reproduce the effect of a hormone in the body. Some steroids are used to treat infections. Other steroid drugs have similar effects to testosterone. Understand more by reading: https://www.drfranciscofonseca.com.br/deficiencia-de-testosterona-e-doencas-associadas/

Risk stratification

It is based on characteristics of the disease combined with personal characteristics such as medical and family history or general health status

Estrogen

The major female sex hormones that control female body traits and are important for the reproductive and menstrual cycle. Know the influence of estrogen on the occurrence of cystitis in menopause.

Fatigue

It means that you feel more tired than normal, run out of energy and do not get better after sleeping. You may also feel pain in your joints, muscles, and chest

Flushes

A medical condition characterized by redness of the skin, sweating and a sudden feeling of internal heat, which can occur in menopause or andropause

Urinary frequency

The need to urinate more often than normal, usually more than 8 times per day. This complaint cystitis.

Cognitive function

Related to reasoning, attention, concentration and memory,

Gynecomastia

A hormonal disorder in which men have benign breast tissue enlargement

Gland

Gland is an organ that synthesizes hormones for release into the bloodstream to act on other parts of the body

Fuhrman nuclear grade

Analyzing the aggressiveness of a tumor based on the structure of its neoplastic cells of the kidney. The classification varies from 1 to 4, with the highest occurring in cases of more aggressive neoplasms. Learn more about signs and symptoms of kidney cancer and on a overview of kidney cancer. and risk factors and prevention.

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

It is the growth of the prostate related to hormonal changes that occur with age. It is the most frequent benign urologic disease of men, usually its symptoms begin after 50 years of age. Benign growth causes a narrowing of the prostatic urethra and for this reason the urine stream is progressively weak. Understand why the prostate grows e What is HPB?.

Medical history

A brief summary of past operations, past and present illnesses, known allergies, and the drugs you currently take.

Holep

Holep is an acronym of the English language that means: Endoscopic enucleation of the prostate with use of the Holmium laser. Therefore, it is a surgery that uses the Holmium laser to remove part of the prostate. Understand when HoLEP is indicated e how the procedure is performed.

Hormones

The molecules that are produced in the glands and circulate in the blood system to reach your target organs. They affect functions and behavior of the body. In women, estrogen is the most important sex hormone and in man it is testosterone. Learn more about testosterone deficiency and associated diseases.

Urinary incontinence

Loss of involuntary urine

Urinary stress or stress incontinence

Urinary stress incontinence (IUS) means that you lose urine during certain activities such as: coughing, sneezing or laughing, with exercise such as running or jumping and lifting heavy things.
This is because during these types of activities there is increased abdominal pressure on the bladder. The urinary sphincter (involuntary and voluntary) can not withstand increased pressure in the bladder and there is little or too much loss of urine, wetting the garments.

Urinary incontinence of urgency

Urinary incontinence of urgency (IUI) happens when you feel a sudden urge to urinate that you can not put off. Bladder muscle contractions occur independently of your will and you have to urinate when you do not want to.

Mixed urinary incontinence

Have symptoms of both urinary incontinence of effort and urgency

Warehouse Injections

An injection of a drug, usually into the muscle or into the subcutaneous tissue, under the skin. The drug is solid and the active compound is released slowly over a long period of time

Image examination

Examinations of body images with ultrasound, x-ray or other techniques.

Immunotherapy

A type of cancer treatment that stimulates the immune system to fight tumor cells

Invasive procedure

Any procedure is to introduce instruments into the body, or parts of the body

Lymphadenectomy

Surgical procedure in which lymph nodes are removed because they are suspected of having microscopic tumor. Know more cancers than lymphadenectomy in bladder cancer and neobexiga, high risk prostate cancer e testicular cancer.

Lymph nodes

Small oval-shaped organs that play a role in regulating the way the immune system responds

Lithotripsy by shock waves

Choice of treatment to break stones into smaller pieces using high energy sound waves. This procedure is called Leco. Fragments of stone are eliminated by urine after the procedure.

LUTS (Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms)

In Portuguese, lower urinary tract symptoms. A term used to evaluate the symptoms caused by HPB or other diseases of the prostate and other diseases affecting the urinary tract. Learn more about yourself Are you urinating well? e prostate surgery with Holmium laser - HoLEP.

Medical Oncologist

A doctor who specializes in treating all types of cancer and mainly uses chemotherapy drugs to treat them

Menopause

Cessation of menstruation period (period in which the woman is fertile and therefore can become pregnant)

Multidisciplinary

A combination of different lines of action. In medicine, this means that urologists, oncologists, psychologists and other medical specialists work together on patient care

Pelvic Floor Muscles

Muscles that support the pelvic organs, including the bladder and rectum.

Cytoreductive nephrectomy

This surgery is specific for metastatic renal cancer, in order to reduce tumor mass. In this surgical procedure, the tumor in the kidney is removed, leaving the metastases. The goal of surgery is to reduce total tumor cells in the body

Partial Nephrectomy

Surgical removal of a kidney tumor along with some normal peritumoral renal tissue. This surgery aims to preserve the maximum possible renal tissue

Radical nephrectomy

A surgical procedure in which the entire kidney is removed, along with the perirenal fat

Neo-angiogenesis

The process by which new blood vessels are formed from pre-existing vessels. In cancer this process allows tumors to grow

Percutaneous Nephrolithotripsy

Treatment option to remove kidney stones directly by placing a tube through the skin

Nocturia or nocturia

Waking up one or more times during the night because of the urge to urinate

Oncologist

A medical professional who is dedicated to the diagnosis, therapy, monitoring and general care of a person with any type of cancer

Orquidoepididimite

Inflammation or infection occurring in the epididymis, a comma-like organ, behind the testicle, divided into head, body and tail

Orchiectomy

A method of surgical castration, in which one or both testicles are removed. If only one testicle is removed, this is known as unilateral orchiectomy. If both testicles are removed this is referred to as bilateral orchiectomy.

Radical Orchiectomy

Complete removal of the testis, epididymis, and spermatic cord elements used to treat patients with testicular cancer.

Osteoporosis

A bone disease characterized by a reduction in bone mass. Its measurement is done with an image examination called bone densitometry. In patients with hypogonadism or drop in testosterone is always indicated. Testosterone replacement is key to setting calcium in the bones. Bone weakness favors fractures that can occur even without impact or falls. Learn more about this at patient with low testosterone.

Bladder wall

The different layers of tissues that form the bladder

Pathologist

A medical professional who studies tissue, blood or urine to understand the specific characteristics of diseases. In the treatment of cancer, the pathologist assists in the diagnosis and classification of tumors

Perineum

The area between the anus and the scrotum or vulva

PET scan

Positron emission tomography (PET) is an imaging exam that uses a radioactive substance called a tracer to look for disease in the body. A PET scan ou PET CT shows how the organs and tissues are working. Know your importance in the treatment of prostate cancer.

Polaciúria

Frequent urination with small volumes of urine. At the HPB this symptom is one of the most annoying patients. It shows that irritative urinary tract symptoms are occurring. Learn more at benign prostatic hyperplasia e weak jet.

Minimally invasive procedure

A surgical procedure in which there is no need to make an incision in the body. An endoscope is used to reach the part of the body that needs to be treated through the urethra

Open and radical prostatectomy.

A surgical procedure in which the prostate is removed, partially or totally. At the HPB (benign prostatic hyperplasia) removes the periurethral region (transitional zone). Understand more in HPB e laser treatment by HoLEP. It is indicated for patients with greater prostate volume than 80-90 grams.

No prostate cancer, the prostate is all removed with the seminal vesicles and pelvic lymph nodes. This surgery is called radical prostatectomy. know more about radical prostatectomy and on the use of robotic surgery.

Prognosis

The medical term to predict the likely health outcome after treatment.

Prostate

The gland of the genital tract that produces the fluid that carries semen. It is located in the lower urinary tract under the bladder and the urethra passes through it.

PSA (prostate-specific antigen)

Test that evaluates the level of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in the blood. A protein produced by the prostate gland that may increase in men with benign prostatic enlargement (HPB), prostatic inflammation, or prostate cancer. A high level of PSA in the blood suggests that prostate cells are behaving abnormally, and may be cancer. Learn more about PSA e HPB.

Residual urine

The amount of urine left in the bladder after you finished urinating.

Quiescence

State of cellular numbness that can come from the embryogenic period that by some chemical stimulus grows again.

Chemotherapy

It is a cancer treatment with drugs that are toxic to cells. Some are specifically toxic to cells that grow faster than normal, such as cancer cells. The specialist who performed the treatment is the oncologist.

Radiotherapist

A specialist who uses radiotherapy to treat cancer.

Recurrence or tumor recurrence

The return of cancer after a period of time in which the disease became undetectable, either by radiotherapy treatment, surgery or chemotherapy, or by combination of these treatments. This can happen where the cancer was detected initially or somewhere else in the body, regardless of when the treatment was performed.

Resectoscope

A type of endoscope used for minimally invasive prostate surgery. It is passed through the urethra to reach the prostate, bladder, ureter and kidneys. In the latter the flexible ureteroscope is used.

Transurethral resection of the prostate (TUR)

Prostate RTU is a standard surgery for the treatment of benign prostatic hypertrophy (HPB). A part of the prostate is removed to improve symptoms without making an incision in your lower abdomen. This type of surgery is known as the minimally invasive treatment. Learn more about fof the drugs in the treatment of HPB and surgery for prostatic enucleation with holmium laser - HoLEP.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging is a technique in which strong magnetic fields and radio waves are used to generate images of the body.

Urinary retention

When you are unable to urinate, causing severe pain in the supra-pubic or lower belly region. This condition can be acute or chronic. Understand more urinary retention.

Kidneys

Two bean-shaped organs in the back of the abdomen, which filter the blood and produce urine.

rescue

A treatment for cancer given in conjunction with or after the main treatment. It can be a treatment to prevent recurrence or part of a palliative care approach

Metabolic syndrome

Related to obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus type 2, systemic arterial hypertension, low good cholesterol, increased triglycerides. know more about testosterone and obesity e importance of testosterone in man's health.

Paraneoplastic syndromes

The reactions that the body may have for any type of cancer and may include high blood pressure, weight loss, fever, anemia, loss of muscle mass and loss of appetite

Assisted robot surgery

An instrument for doctors to perform laparoscopic surgery. The surgeon controls the robotic instrument with remote control sensors. Learn about robotic surgery of kidneys and yes Prostate surgery came to stay.

Bladder catheter

A tube placed in the urethra and bladder to help you urinate

Adipose tissue

A type of connective tissue made from cells that store fat Also called adipose tissue

Anti-angiogenic therapy

Drug therapy that prevents the formation of new blood vessels that feed a tumor and allow its growth

Target Therapy

These are the drugs that target the mechanisms that use cancer cells to grow

Androgen Deprivation Therapy

The goal of therapy is to stop or slow down tumor growth. This is done by reducing the level of androgens, or preventing them from reaching the prostate cells

Focal therapy

A general term for a variety of minimally invasive techniques for the destruction of small tumors. The main goal of focal therapy is to limit damage to the surrounding tissue.

Radiation Therapy

A type of cancer treatment that uses radiation to control or kill malignant cells

Testicles

The testicles are the male genital organs that produce sperm and hormone, testosterone. Learn more about testosterone deficiency and associated diseases is about Why Varicocele Causes Testosterone Drop.

Testosterone

An androgen hormone steroid that is produced primarily in the testicles and is responsible for the development of male sexual characteristics. Learn more about diseases associated with testosterone decline.

Hormone Therapy with Testosterone

Any treatment option in which the hormones are used. In urology it should be used when the testosterone deficiency. This treatment is called hormone replacement. This is a fundamental hormone for the physical and mental well-being of men. Learn more about hormone replacement therapy e diabetes and testosterone.

On the other hand it is also used to treat advanced prostate cancer, ie when the disease out of the prostate gland is can be detected mainly in bones and lymph nodes. This involvement of the disease at a distance is called metastasis. Understand about prostate cancer e overview of prostate cancer.

Target Therapy

These are the drugs that target the mechanisms that use cancer cells to grow

Test Pad

During the test the doctor asks to use an absorbent. Typically, the test will last between 1 and 24 hours. You have to weigh the amount of urine absorbed by the cushion.

Testicles

Os testicles are the male genital organs that produce sperm and produce the hormone testosterone by Leydig cells in the testis. THE testosterone deficiency ou hypogonadism causes systemic symptoms that can seriously harm all of the body's functionally. Usually occurs after 45 years of age. It is known that man loses 1% of testosterone production per year after 40 years of age. Learn more about importance of testosterone in man's health e signs and symptoms of hypogonadism.

Dystopic testis

Testis palpated high and out of the pouch, but not inside the abdomen. It is usually palpable in the groin area of ​​the lower abdomen. These patients must undergo surgery at six months of age, as from there begins to occur definitive and irrecoverable lesions to the testicles. Learn more about this topic cryptorchidism in childhood e cryptorchidism.

Testosterone

An androgenic steroid hormone that is mainly produced in the testicles in 95% of its total. He is responsible for the development of male sexual characteristics. Testosterone presents multiple physiological functions to regulate the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. However, it acts on the muscles and myocardium itself without the need to be transformed into dihydrotestosterone. On the other hand in the target organs this transformation takes place.

Its action plays an important role in the functioning of various systems of the human organism. To have an idea works in the brain fundamentally, improving various actions of the cognitive system, and can improve brain connections. It improves forgetfulness, reasoning, fatigue and prevents the development of chronic brain diseases such as senile dementia, Parkinson's disease, etc. Understand more about testosterone deficiency and associated diseases e low testosterone.

Computed Tomography (CT)

CT means CT scan is an imaging technique that makes a series of x-ray images of the body in cuts, presented cuts in three-dimensional form.

Rectal touch

Rectal examination or examination of the prostate is part of the physical examination in which the doctor uses the index finger to feel the size, shape and consistency of the prostate. It serves to diagnose conditions such as prostate enlargement (HPB) or prostate cancer. By touch you can feel the physical changes of the prostate gland. In benign disease, the touch is fibroelastic, mobile and painless. However, in cancer the prostate is hardened and in the same way, the examination does not cause pain. When pain occurs, the prostate is inflamed (prostatitis) Learn more about diagnosis of prostate diseases.

In medicine nothing is so simple at times. There are cases in which the PSA is low and the prostate is hardened, ie prostate cancer. Learn more about prostate cancer e high risk prostate cancer. On the other hand there are cases with PSA and that the touch is normal, with only a large prostate, is the HPB. Learn more about HPB and os care of prostate RTU. The most normal is that the HPB have PSA lower and prostate cancer, PSA higher.

Conservative treatment

A type of treatment in which the doctor monitors your health and can recommend treatment when necessary

First-line treatment

The first treatment given for a disease. It is often part of a standard set of treatment options

Second line treatment

The treatment that is given when the initial treatment no longer works

Urinary tract

The organ system that produces and transports urine through and out of the body. It includes two kidneys, ureters, the bladder and the urethra. The urinary tract is similar in men and women, except that men have a longer urethra

Benign tumor

A non-cancerous growth that will not spread to other organs. Learn about the most frequent benign tumor in men, the benign prostatic hyperplasia (HPB).

Malignant tumor

A cancerous growth that either grows continuously or in outbreaks. Malignant tumors can cause metastases, which means it has spread to other parts of the body. Learn about the most frequent malignant tumor of men, that is the prostate cancer.

Primary tumor

The malignant cell growth located where the tumor began to develop

Ultrasonography

Image examination that uses high-frequency sounds to make an image of the inside of the body (ultrasound)

Ureter

One of two tubes through which urine flows from the kidneys to the bladder

Ureteroscopy (rigid or flexible)

An endoscope used to visualize the upper urinary tract. It is inserted into the urethra and passes through the bladder, ascending the ureter to the kidney. Can be used for diagnosis and treatment of congenital and tumor calculus and lesions

Urge urinary incontinence

Urgency and urge incontinence (IUI) happens when you get a sudden urge to urinate that you can not put off. Bladder muscle contractions occur when you do not want to

Urinalysis

A sudden urge to urinate that is difficult to be delayed

Urofluxometer

A special funnel that is used during a urofluxometry test. The funnel is attached to a measuring instrument that calculates the amount of urine, urinary flow rate in seconds, and period of time until urination stops

Intravenous urography

An imaging technique in which the x-ray contrast agent is injected into the vein, usually in the arm

Urolithiasis

Renal calculi disease, which can migrate to the ureters and trigger renal colic, called nephretic.

Seminal vesicles

A pair of glands located below the bladder and behind the prostate gland. They produce part of the seminal fluid

Active Surveillance

A form of treatment in which the physician actively monitors the tumor or tumors and their growth, based on a rigorous visit schedule. For each visit, CT, ultrasound or x-rays are done, and other appropriate examinations can be performed. know more about active surveillance and prostate cancer.

EnglishPortuguese
× How can I help you?