What is it?
O Testicular Cancer can start with carcinoma on-site (CIS) or intratubular neoplasm of germ cells. CT is a neoplasm occurring in cgerm cells in more than 90% of cases, with a growth rate of the fastest among malignant neoplasms. Testicular cancer is dividiof in oflarge groups of tumors:
- seminomas e
- tumores non-seminomatous (embryonic carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, choriocarcinoma and teratoma) and occur in equal proportions.
Testicular cancer is the most common tumor dthe neoplasmsias in men aged 15 to 34 years old. However, seminomas occur at an average age of 31 years and the tumors non-seminomatous at 22 years old. In additiontumors occur below the age of 13s of the yolk sac and teratoma (7% of cases). Even more, thereBilateral incidence occurs in 2-3%.
Epidemiological studies show that testicular cancer increasesou nthe last 40 yearsposspossibly related to environmental pollution, use of pesticide, contraceptiveEtc.. Therefore, the most environment is transformed and this is very dangerous for the world population.
Testicular cancer symptoms
A principal complaint of the patient is progressive increasethe testicle, usually painless. Physical examination shows a hardened tumor. "Any hardened mass in the testicle or abdomen in a young adult should be considered testicular cancer until proven otherwise ”. However, theSometimes the main symptom is due to metastatic disease.
Risk factors testicular cancer
They are known risk factors for development of testicular cancer:
- Testis CIS (carcinoma germ cell intratubular),
- dysgenetic gonads,
- bearers of cryptorchid testicle (risk of 3 to 14 times),
- antecedent of CT in contralateral testicle (3-4%),
- family history (4-10 times risk),
- infertility (10-15%),
- atrophic testicle (5-10%),
- com K syndromelinefelter,
- marijuana users and
- HIV carriers.
Diagnosis testicular cancer
The suspicious diagnosis is made by hclinical history and physical examination of hardened testicular mass. However, the extent of disease (clinical staging) is done by imaging exams and blood. O staging (disease in the body) é done by imaging exams (ultrasound, tomography, resonance, PET-CT and mapping bone, according to medical indication). Besides that, with laboratory tests, the so-called marcadores tumoral dthe CT (β-HCG, α-fetoprotein and DHL).
Thus, as they are young patients, in most cases, they should be harvestedr semen for evaluate the spermogram and preservation in a semen bank (cryopreservation).
The treatment of testicular cancer is based on the histopat examologic and staychin (extension that disease in the body). A radical orchiectomy é a priority for definitive diagnosis. This surgery must be mandatorily performed through inguinal access, thus making its oncological approach. Consequently, the scrotal approach completely changes its systemic spread. Therefore, with enormous damage to the patient. So your delay can mean the loss of opportunity to heal the patient. Therefore, the orchiectomy radical may be the only cure treatmentro patient at the beginning disease.
Patients high risk to have disease in metastatic lymph nodes in the retroperitoneum or with masses visible on imaging studies, or in other sites such as the lung and brain should be subjected to chemotherapy.
In general, the sooner treatment is started, the greater the chances of cure with smallest morbity, being this may manifest late in life.
Prevention testicular cancer
Patients risk factors must be followed and guided from childhood to the possibility of evolving with testicular cancer, and should be alerted family members about suspicious testicles (patients with cryptorchidism, with or without orchidopexy;hypotrophic titules and hypogonadal – low testosterone serum). Therefore, qany growth in size dthe testicleshould be investigated quicklymind.
Therefore, a lot of attention: Be careful to consider tumor testicular like orchitis!